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Volume 65 • Number 1
Preliminary investigation of the content validity and clinical utility of the Predischarge Assessment Tool
Deborah Rudman, Jennifer Tooke, Tanya Glencross Eimantas, Mary Hall, Karen Brennan Maloney
With the trend towards decreasing lengths of hospital stays, comprehensive discharge assessment is essential to facilitate continuity of care between hospital and community, minimize readmissions, and maximize client satisfaction. Predischarge assessment is often part of the occupational therapy role, especially in acute care. The Predischarge Assessment Tool (PAT) outlines a method of conducting comprehensive assessments in a manner consistent with the Occupational Therapy Guidelines for Client-Centred Practice. The tool is designed to inform decisions regarding: occupational readiness for discharge to the community from acute care; physical and social supports required to support occupational performance; and follow-up therapy. Two studies provide initial support for the content validity and clinical utility of the PAT and, at the same time, indicate that some modifications to the PAT are required.
Keywords: Discharge planning, evaluation process, occupational therapy, occupational performance
Occupation-as-means to mental health: A review of the literature and a call for research
Occupational therapy is a profession which is based upon many beliefs about occupation. One belief is that engagement in occupation can promote physical and mental health. This belief appears to support the profession’s jurisdictional claim to the use and application of occupation in psychosocial practice. A review of the psychosocial occupational therapy literature yielded few empirical studies which addressed the use of occupation-as-means to mental health. A discrepancy exists between what the profession theoretically advances about occupation and the research conducted in this area. This discrepancy is highlighted as a possible explanation for the lack of recognition of the value of occupational therapy in mental health and is forwarded as a potential risk to the profession’s jurisdictional claim to the use and application of occupation. A call to research is advanced to develop a knowledge base on occupation, to empirically support the use of occupation as therapy, and to secure a unique role for occupational therapy in psychosocial practice.
Keywords: Human activities and occupations, mental health
Étude descriptive sur l’intégration au travail de jeunes adultes présentant une infirmité motrice cérébrale
Anne Bouchard, Renée Bourbonnais, Sylvie Tétreault
Work plays a fundamental role in all of our lives. However it remains inaccessible for some young adults with a physical disability. This paper presents the data collected from a study of 67 young adults with cerebral palsy. Socio-demographic variables, their state of health, level of independance in activities of daily living, as well as working status were all examined. Statistical analyses were completed and compared for each category of these variables. A significant relationship was found between subjects’ work status and some variables. These variables were age, age at first employment, type of school attended, the ability to complete the questionnaire independently, the presence of any health problems, and their independence in most daily living activities.
The results obtained in this study are supported by the findings reported in the literature, i.e. that a link is evident between these variables and an ability to work.
Keywords: Disabled, social environment, young adult, work
The effects of auditory stimuli on functional performance among cognitively impaired elderly
Debra Elm, Sharon Warren, Helen Madill
Cognitively impaired elderly residents of a continuing care facility performed three tasks (getting a drink, folding laundry and setting a table) under three different auditory stimulus conditions (silence, conversation and music). Functional performance skills were assessed during execution of these tasks using the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). Scores for process functional performance skills were significantly better under the conversation and silence conditions than under the music condition, while scores for motor functional performance skills were significantly better under the conversation condition than the music condition. These results suggest that background music may have a detrimental effect on performance and that other forms of auditory stimuli which might be beneficial should be sought.
Keywords: Psychomotor disorders, psychomotor performance, sensory stimulation
Flow and occupation: A review of the literature
Flow is a subjective psychological state which occurs when one is totally involved in an activity. Elements of the flow experience include the focusing of attention on a clear goal, a loss of self-consciousness, an altered sense of time, and a sense that the activity in itself is rewarding. Through a review of the literature, the author presents conditions linked to the experience of flow that pertain to traits of the person, properties of the activity, and the interaction between the two. The relevance of flow theory to occupational therapy and occupational science is discussed. Considerations for research on flow and occupation are outlined.
Keywords: Activity, effects of, life satisfaction, motivation
Occupational therapy language: Matters of respect, accountability and leadership
Language has the power to express, change, and organize human thought and experience. Here, the author reflects on the inter-relationships between language, ideas and action, and on the common language expressed in client-centred practice focused on occupation, as in Canada's newest conceptual and practice guidelines on Enabling Occupation. She presents her reflections as matters of respect, accountability and leadership in occupational therapy.
Keywords: Language, philosophy, occupational therapy, practice guidelines