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Volume 79, Number 4
Table of Contents
How does the CJOT measure up? Taking journal quality metrics into account
Reflections on the professionalization of occupational therapy: Time to put down the looking glass
Juliette E. Cooper
Background. Many changes have occurred in occupational therapy and its environment during the last 50 years. Despite major advances, occupational therapy is not well-known by the general public and concern remains about its professional status. Purpose. To review “professionalization,” and relate it to occupational
therapy through reflection on major changes and critical events; to analyze the current status of occupational therapy; and to make suggestions for change. Key Issues. Professionalization is a dynamic, ongoing process; occupational groups achieve professional status through recognition by society, not by meeting a set list of criteria. A framework for professionalization allows examination of constraints on occupational autonomy and weighing of issues affecting internal and external dynamics. Application of the framework identified that occupational therapy in Canada today is mostly focused on its internal dynamic. Implications. To maintain and advance its professional status, occupational therapy must focus to the external dynamic to improve its recognition by the general public.
Key words: Occupational therapy, Profession, Professionalization
Technology supporting written productivity in children with learning disabilities: A critical review
Beata Batorowicz, Cheryl A. Missiuna, Nancy A. Pollock
Background. Occupational therapists working with school-aged children are often in the position of recommending technology to enhance written productivity. The outcome of using technology on the writing of children with learning disabilities has not been reviewed critically, and this knowledge is necessary for evidence-based practice. Purpose. To review evidence regarding the use of technology to support written productivity in children with learning disabilities. Methods. A systematic search of seven databases, plus a manual search, retrieved 864 papers published between 1985 and March 2012. Twenty-seven papers (28 studies) met inclusion criteria. Findings. The evidence is of a moderately low level and results are inconclusive; however, trends suggest a positive influence of some technology on children’s performance and behaviour. Methodological limitations exist in most studies and the description of specific technology intervention is often combined with teaching instructions. Implications. The available research is encouraging, but high-quality investigations with newer technologies are needed.
Key words: Computers, Evidence-based practice, Software, Writing
Anatomy of cognitive strategies: A therapist’s primer for enabling occupational performance
Joan P. Toglia, Sylvia A. Rodger, Helene J. Polatajko
Background. Promoting effective strategy use is an integral part of enabling occupational performance; however, there are variations in how strategies are defined, discussed, used, and applied in occupational therapy practice. Purpose. Focusing on cognitive strategies, in this paper, we define and describe strategies and their types and divide the concept of strategies into two dimensions: strategy attributes and strategy use. A comprehensive framework for each dimension (attribute and use) is proposed as a clinical reasoning guide as well as a foundation for future research. The frameworks are designed to reduce ambiguity, deepen understanding, and serve as clinical reasoning guides assisting therapists in specifying, describing, and observing cognitive strategies during occupational performance. Key Issues. We argue that there is a need for therapists to use consistent terminology and to be able to systematically select cognitive strategies and evaluate their use. Implications. The proposed strategy frameworks provide clinical guides for systematic analysis and selection of cognitive strategies as well as for observing components of strategy use during clients’ occupational performance. We suggest the need for greater specification and description of strategies during intervention and highlight directions for future research.
Key words: Cognition, Occupational performance, Occupational therapy, Strategies
Work-related injuries in Canadian occupational therapy practice
Andrea P. Dyrkacz, Lonita Y. M. Mak, Carol S. Heck
Background. No studies investigate work-related injuries experienced by Canadian occupational therapists. Purpose. To identify the nature and prevalence of work-related injuries, impact of practice context, cultural and structural factors that influence response to these injuries, and strategies used to manage return-to-work after injury. Methods. Members of the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists were sent an electronic survey in June 2009. Findings. Over half of the 600 respondents reported at least one injury episode. Patient-handling and equipment-related incidents accounted for the largest proportion of injuries. Almost one-third of respondents reported being threatened at work or experiencing workplace violence. Implications. Injured occupational therapists tended to minimize the extent and impact of their injuries by underreporting incidents and continuing to work after injury. These behaviours may contribute to a failure to recognize the reality of work-related injuries in occupational therapy practice and thereby limit the development of profession-specific, risk-minimization strategies.
Key words: Healthcare culture, Occupational therapy, Return-to-work, Violence, Work-related injuries
Measurement properties of the Occupational Therapy Discharge Needs Screen
Linda E. Boronowski, Cara M. Shorter, William C. Miller
Background. Pre-discharge home assessments are integral to discharge planning; however, there is no screening tool identifying clients with complex needs. Purpose. To determine the inter- and intrarater reliability and predictive and concurrent validity of the Occupational Therapy Discharge Needs Screen (OTDNS), a screening tool that identifies clients with more complex discharge needs. Methods. The OTDNS Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF) were administered to 89 participants. Findings. Intrarater reliability was ICC = 0.93 (95% CI 0.90 – 0.96) (n = 89). Interrater reliability was ICC = 0.53 (95% CI 0.27 – 0.70) (n = 89) with the initial OTDNS instructions, and ICC = 0.91 (95% CI 0.62 – 0.96) (n = 10) with revised OTDNS instructions. The OTDNS had an inverse relationship with the FIM (r = -0.51; p < 0.001) and a positive relationship with the SMAF (r = 0.64; p < 0.001). A score of > 7/28 had a sensitivity = 75% and specificity = 40% when predicting occupational therapy home assessment post-discharge. Implications. The OTDNS has potential to contribute to continuity and efficiency of the discharge-planning process.
Key words: Occupational therapy, Patient discharge, Pre-discharge home visits, Validity
Book Reviews/Revue des Livres
The Guide to Good Health for Teens and Adults with Down Syndrome (2010), Brian Chicoine and Dennis McGuire. Reviewed by Sheila Hamilton
Virtual Child: The Terrifying Truth about What Technology is Doing to Children (2010), Cris A. Rowan. Reviewed by Debbie Field
Daily Living Skills Worksheets: Reproducible Resources for Teaching Independent Living Skills (2011), Linda Harrison. Reviewed by Edith Lemay