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CJOT abstracts - Volume 67, Number 2
Visioning Together for Leadership
by Sue Baptiste
Key words: professional development, professional issues, leadership
Integration tutorials and seminars: A creative learning approach for occupational therapy curricula
by Emely Smits & Janice Ferguson
This paper, the first of two companion papers, describes a creative learning approach. Integration Tutorials and Seminars were developed to address concerns of regional fieldwork-education coordinators and preceptors about the ability of third-year student occupational therapists to integrate and apply academic and theoretical knowledge during fieldwork. This ability can be gained through experiential learning in the academic setting and is essential for the effective transfer of academic learning into the students' fieldwork-education experiences (Dale, 1994; Fidler, 1996; McCaugherty, 1991; Neistadt, 1996).
The Modified Learning Model of Svinicki and Dixon (1987) was used as a template for an academic course fostering experiential learning. An important secondary goal was to nurture student self-directedness in learning using the philosophy of the Staged Self-Directed Learning Model (Grow, 1991). Case studies were used as a vehicle for engaging and challenging the students.
The philosophy, guidelines and process of the Integration Tutorials and Seminars are presented and have the potential to be adapted for occupational therapy curricula around the globe.
Key words: curriculum development, education - occupational therapy, student knowledge
Integration tutorials and seminars: Examining the integration of academic and fieldwork learning by student occupational therapists
by Sheila Banks, Elizabeth Bell, & Emely Smits
This paper, the second of two companion papers, describes a collaborative research study conducted by academic and fieldwork educators of an undergraduate educational programme in occupational therapy. The study examined the perception of student occupational therapists' ability to integrate and apply academic and theoretical knowledge in fieldwork education sites following the introduction of Integration Tutorials and Seminars to the curriculum. The literature review supports the need to develop educational strategies to improve this integration process. The qualitative research design consisted of guided interviews with preceptors and students during two consecutive fieldwork education experiences. Inductive data analysis revealed three themes that contribute to understanding students' ability to integrate academic learning during their fieldwork education: the fieldwork learning environment; preceptor influence on student learning; and the student learning process over time. The discussion section raises implications for academic and fieldwork education approaches.
Key words : curriculum development, fieldwork education - occupational therapy, student knowledge
Perceived efficacy and goal setting in young children
by Cheryl Missiuna & Nancy Pollock
One of the central tenets of client-centred occupational therapy is to enable clients to select goals to work on in therapy (Law, 1998). The process of identifying and prioritizing goals is fairly abstract, therefore occupational therapy goals for children are often prescribed by the therapist or by parents and teachers. The purpose of this study was to pilot test a measure and a process that would provide young children with the opportunity to assess their performance on daily tasks and to establish goals for occupational therapy intervention. Parents and children completed the Perceived Efficacy and Goal Setting System (PEGS), a measure of children's perception of their competence performing fine and gross motor tasks. Children 5-9 years of age were able to discriminate among tasks and to rate whether or not they were able to perform each task competently. They were also able to use this information to select and prioritize goals for intervention. While parents often rated the child's competence lower than the child did, there was a high level of agreement regarding which tasks were difficult for the child. Parents and children often did not agree about the specific selection or priority of these tasks for intervention, however, which highlights the need for further research.
Key words: goal-setting, instrument construction, self-efficacy
Comparaison des caractéristiques comportementales de l'état d'alerte spontané et de l'état libéré chez le nouveau-né à terme
by Annie Clément & Julie Gosselin
Occupational therapists evaluate the capacities of infants at younger ages than ever before. The variability of the infants' state has an inevitable influence on the expression of their behaviours. In order to counter the effect of this instability, Grenier (1985) suggests inducing the "liberated state," which optimizes the infant's level of attention. The aim of this study was to identify the behaviours that discriminate this liberated state from the alert state (state 4) as described by Brazelton (1973). Some of the parameters that were defined in the Synactive Theory of Development Model (Als, 1982) were used in order to document the behaviours of the infants observed in the two different states. The average age of the infants, at the time of observation, was 62 hours. The duration of the observation was 5 minutes. Among the 54 newborns that were evaluated, 21 were observed in the two states under study; 33 were evaluated in one state only. The results confirm a greater stability of the "liberated state". Stress and self-regulation behaviours, and the need for external regulation are less frequent in this state; these differences are statistically significant (p<0,05). Goal-directed movements are more frequent in the "liberated state" (p<0,001). The authors suggest the use of the "liberated state" to further document the early capacities of infants.
Key words: infant - newborn, neonatal assessment
Development of the Handicap Assessment and Resource Tool (HART)
by Andrea Vertesi, Peteris Darzins, Shari Lowe, Esther McEvoy & Mary Edwards
An important determinant of whether people can live in community settings is the absence of significant handicap. People with considerable disabilities can live without handicap if they have adequate supports. Handicap, rather than disability, limits peoples' residence options. Disability assessment tools are commonly used to guide where people can live - these assess neither the resources available nor the personal-care handicap present. The Handicap Assessment and Resource Tool (HART) was designed to provide information about the personal-care issues (clothing, hygiene, nutrition, mobility, safety, residence and supports) relevant to choice of residence.
The HART was tested by occupational therapists who are frequently expected to provide recommendations regarding disabled clients' residence options. It is a client-centred tool that addresses key occupational performance components of personal care. Pilot testing in hospital and community settings shows the HART is a comprehensive and practical tool that is acceptable to users and clients.
Key words: activities of daily living evaluation, discharge living, occupational performance
A Review of a Major Driver Rehabilitation Centre: A Ten-Year Client Profile
by Peter Klavora, Margaret Young & Ron J. Heslegrave
Driver Rehabilitation Services at Bloorview MacMillan Centre in Toronto provide important assessment and rehabilitation services for persons with various physical, neurological, and medical disabilities. Each year, the programme sees approximately 700 to 800 clients. Since 1985, the earliest year for which records are currently available, the program has seen approximately 7300 clients. The client information filing system consists predominantly of paper reports filed alphabetically by hand. A comprehensive computer database program was implemented in 1996 to organize and analyze client-driver records more efficiently. A systematic random sample consisting of 364 records (5% of the total population) was examined to describe the characteristics of the population within five major study categories: demographics, administration, medical information, visual and perceptual abilities and driving record.
Key words: client profile, computerized patient record, driver assessment