The on-line version is available to members only. To subscribe or purchase a PDF, e-mail email@example.com.
Volume 79, Number 3
Table of Contents
Methodological coherence: Establishing a unified research frame/La cohérence méthodologique : Établir un cadre de recherche unifié
Jane A. Davis
The relationship between sensory processing patterns and sleep quality in healthy adults
Batya Engel-Yeger, Tamar Shochat
Background. Sleep quality affects a person’s performance and quality of life. Poor sleep was recently associated with hyperarousability and difficulties in processing sensory input. Purpose. To examine the relationships between sensory-processing difficulties (SPD) and sleep quality in healthy adults. Methods. The 185 participants, aged 21 to 60 (mean 33.64 ± 8.69), completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Findings. Sleep quality significantly correlated with sensory-processing patterns characterized by hypersensitivity. These patterns were manifested in specific modalities (tactile, visual, and auditory), which significantly predicted sleep quality. Implications. Sleep quality may be related to predisposing, sensory-processing patterns, particularly to hypersensitivity. Occupational therapists should refer to the possible relationship between SPD and sleep quality when treating individuals with SPD or poor sleepers. This may assist in implementing the optimal intervention based on the person’s specific needs and contribute to performance and quality of life.
Key words: Human information processing, Perception, Sensory, Sleep
A phenomenological study of occupational engagement in recovery from mental illness
Daniel J. Sutton, Clare S. Hocking, Liz A. Smythe
Background. Recovery from mental illness has been described as a process involving personal growth and a search for meaning. Occupation is a primary medium for human development as well as the creation of life meaning, suggesting the exploration of recovery from an occupational perspective is warranted. Purpose. To explore the experience and meaning of occupation for 13 people who self-identified as being in recovery from mental illness. Methods. Recovery narratives were collected from participants in conversational interviews that were recorded and transcribed. The transcripts were analysed using hermeneutic phenomenology. Findings. A range of experiences were evident in the recovery narratives, from complete disengagement to full engagement in occupations. Insights into the experience and meaning of different states of occupation were revealed. Implications. All forms of occupational engagement, including disengagement, can be meaningful in the recovery process. Increased understanding of different modes of occupational engagement will assist therapists to support recovery more effectively.
Key words: Engagement in occupation, Meaning of occupation, Meaning making, Mental illness, Phenomenology
A critical reflection on the concept of cultural safety
Alison J. Gerlach
Background. Cultural safety broadens and transforms the discourse on culture and health inequities as experienced by diverse populations. Purpose. To critically analyze cultural safety in terms of its clarity, simplicity, generality, accessibility, and importance. Key Issues. Whilst the clarity and generality of cultural safety remain contentious, there is emerging evidence of its capacity to promote a more critical discourse on culture, health, and health care inequities and how they are shaped by historical, political, and socioeconomic circumstances. Implications. Cultural safety promotes a more critical and inclusive perspective of culture. As an analytical lens in occupational therapy practice and research, it has the potential to reveal and generate broader understandings of occupation and health from individuals or groups in society who are traditionally silenced or marginalized. In relation to Aboriginal peoples, it clearly situates health and health inequities within the context of their colonial, socioeconomic, and political past and present.
Key words: Aboriginal peoples, Critical thinking, Cultural safety, Culture, Health inequities
Terms used to describe pediatric videofluoroscopic feeding studies: A Delphi survey
Astrid E. St. Pierre, Bronwyn A. Reelie, Allison R. Dolan, Rochelle H. Stokes, Janice A. Duivestein, Liisa Holsti
Background. The prevalence of pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders is high in the special needs population. Videofluoroscopic feeding studies (VFFS) are used to assess feeding, but the accurate interpretation of VFFS depends on consistent use of terminology for describing a physiological swallow. No consensus exists regarding the terminology used for reporting VFFS findings. Purpose. The goal of this study was to achieve consensus among pediatric therapists on definitions for terminology used to describe the results of VFFS. Methods. Using a Delphi process, therapists from British Columbia rated definitions most appropriate for each term. They also were asked to add definitions that they thought would more accurately describe the terms. Findings. Consensus was achieved on at least one definition for each of the terms used to describe the results of VFFS. Implications. Accurate interpretation of swallowing issues may improve the care of infants and children with feeding and swallowing difficulties.
Key words: Delphi survey, Modified barium swallow study, Swallowing, Videofluoroscopic feeding study, Videofluoroscopic swallowing study
Comparing the responsiveness of the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills and the Functional Independence Measure
Andrea M. Fioravanti, Candace M. Bordignon, Susan M. Pettit, Linda J. Woodhouse, Barbara J. Ansley
Background. Selecting and utilizing appropriate assessments to evaluate outcomes is an important aspect of evidence-based occupational therapy practice. The Functional Independence Measure (FIM), to which occupational therapists contribute motor and cognitive scores, is currently the only required assessment for evaluating change from admission to discharge on an inpatient rehabilitation unit. However, occupational therapists are also using the motor and process scales from the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) to assess clients and evaluate change. Purpose. To compare responsiveness of the AMPS and the FIM on an inpatient rehabilitation unit. Methods. A retrospective chart review of AMPS measures and FIM scores at admission and discharge was undertaken. Standardized response means and effect sizes were calculated to estimate responsiveness. Findings. No significant difference was found in the ability of the AMPS motor and FIM motor scales to detect change. The AMPS process scale was more responsive to change than the FIM cognitive scale. Implications. Using the AMPS as an assessment to evaluate outcomes allows practitioners to detect changes that may not be detected through the exclusive use of the FIM.
Key words: Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS)Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Program evaluation, Rehabilitation, Treatment outcome
Curriculum evaluation: Linking curriculum objectives to essential competencies
Brenda K. Merritt, Andrea I. Blake, Alison H. McIntyre, Tanya L. Packer
Background. The essential competencies of occupational therapy practice are agreed upon and documented (ACOTRO, 2003), yet they have not been used to evaluate educational programs. Purpose. To evaluate the match between the planned curriculum and the nationally recognized competencies that define safe, effective, and ethical practice. Methods. Utilizing a comparative and systematic approach, course learning objectives in the approved curriculum map were matched to the ACOTRO (2003) competencies. Findings. A total of 218 links were made between the 179 learning objectives and the 30 essential competencies. There were no links to three competencies. Learning objectives were not equally represented across the ACOTRO units; initial analyses indicate the distribution is likely appropriate. Implications. This novel evaluative process allowed critical appraisal and subsequent minor revision of Dalhousie curriculum. The appropriate, relative weighting of curriculum content is unknown and is a professional issue for discussion by regulators, educators, and the profession at large.
Key words: Competency-based education, Curriculum, Education, Occupational therapy
A scoping review of the Photovoice method: Implications for occupational therapy research
Shalini Lal, Tal Jarus, Melinda J. Suto
Background. Photovoice is a participatory action research method combining photography and group work to give people an opportunity to record and reflect on their daily lives. Purpose. To review the use of Photovoice in health research and consider the implications for occupational therapy research. Methods. Literature review, guided by a scoping framework, reveals the purposes, rationales and populations with whom Photovoice has been used. Findings. From 351 documents retrieved, 191 original studies were surveyed; 68% were peer-reviewed. The majority of studies (76%) occurred within the public health domain and a smaller percentage (24%) with individuals experiencing a specific illness and/or disability, with very few (2%) documented in the occupational therapy literature. Implications. Photovoice provides a useful framework to apply a participant-centred research approach on occupational participation. It is important to consider and further examine ethical and methodological issues related to stigma, physical and cognitive capacities, mobility and technical accessibility related to using this method.
Key words: Community-based participatory research, Photo-elicitation, Photography, Photovoice, Visual studies
Down Syndrome Parenting 101: Must-Have Advice for Making Your Life Easier (2011), Natalie Hale. Reviewed by Joyce Magill-Evans
Teaching Teens with ADD, ADHD & Executive Function Deficits: A Quick Reference Guide for Teachers and Parents, Second Edition (2011), Chris A. Zeigler Dendy. Reviewed by Robin Jewers
Jumpstarting Communication Skills in Children with Autism: A Parents’ Guide to Applied Verbal Behavior (2011), Mary Jane Weiss & Valbona Demiri. Reviewed by Christel Seeberger