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From the Editor
Why theory mattersMarcia Finlayson
Suffering, Occupational therapy, Philosophy, Arthur Frank, Emmanuel Levinas
Relationships between occupational factors and health and well-being in individuals with persistent mental illness living in the community
Mona Eklund, Christel Leufstadius
Purpose. This study identified relationships between occupational factors and health and well-being among individuals with persistent mental illness. Methods. There were 103 subjects assessed in regards to time spent in different occupations, activity level, satisfaction with daily occupations, and experienced occupational value. The health-related variables were self-rated health, quality of life, self-esteem, sense of coherence, self-mastery, psychosocial functioning, and psychiatric symptoms. Results. Subjective perceptions of occupational performance were consistently related to both self-rated and interviewer-rated aspects of health and functioning. While variables pertaining to actual doing showed weak or no associations with self-rated health-related variables, they exhibited moderate relationships to interviewer-rated health and functioning. Implications. The health-promoting ingredients in occupations were determined by the way occupations were perceived, rather than the doing per se. The findings indicate that perceived meaning and satisfaction ought to be prioritized when setting goals in occupational therapy practice, and, besides, that existing occupational therapy theory needs to be updated.
Daily occupations, Quality of life, Psychiatry
Exploring Canadian occupational therapists' understanding of and experiences in community development
Heidi Lauckner, Wendy Pentland, Margo Paterson
Background. Occupational therapists are increasingly recognizing the importance of working with communities as a way to enhance health and well-being. Such work can occur through community development, a community-driven process in which communities are supported in identifying and addressing their health priorities. Purpose. This paper presents the qualitative findings of a study that explored the experiences of occupational therapists in Canada working in community development including how they understand community development and how they designed their role in this field. Methods. Occupational therapists working in community development shared their experiences and understanding of community development during 12 interviews. Results. The results of this study describe the iterative, reflexive process occupational therapists have undergone in coming to establish their role in this field. Implications. Recommendations are made regarding the preparation of future occupational therapists and for supporting those currently working in this field.
Community development, Occupational therapy education, Qualitative research, Phenomenology
Le Profil du Loisir, un instrument prometteur en ergothérapie
Élisabeth Dutil, Nathalie Bier, Céline Gaudreault
Background. Although the benefits of leisure activities are well known, few instruments have been specifically designed to measure a person's engagement in their leisure activities and to assess the personal or environmental factors affecting their capacity to participate in leisure activities. Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to present the steps leading to the development of the Profil du Loisir between 1990 and 2002. Methods. The planning, construction, and validation of the tool were done according to the steps suggested by Benson and Clark (1982). The first versions were tested by occupational therapists on individuals with traumatic brain injuries. Results. The validation led to the development of the final version (3.0). The inter-rater reliability of the instrument was rated from acceptable (kappa 0.21 - 0.4) to very good (0.61 - 0.80) and the test-retest reliability was rated from acceptable to moderate (0.41 - 0.60). Clinical Implications. The Profil du Loisir is a promising tool that invites occupational therapists to systematically consider and assess client leisure time in their practice.
Leisure, Measuring instrument, Traumatic brain injury
Evaluation of a teleconference-delivered energy conservation education program for people with multiple sclerosis
Marcia Finlayson, Christa Holberg
Background. Little is known about the strengths and limitations of teleconference delivery for energy conservation education for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study evaluated such a program to address this gap. Methods. Data were collected from 28 individuals with MS who participated in a teleconference-delivered energy conservation education program. Participants shared their perspectives on the course and its delivery format. Session notes from the three occupational therapists who delivered the program were also reviewed. Findings. Participants found the format to be convenient and relaxed, and the content to be relevant to their everyday lives. Technical issues, lack of time for sharing, and lack of time to practice strategies were limitations. Although the format challenged the occupational therapists' group leadership skills, they were surprised at the extent of group cohesion that developed using this format. Implications. Feedback from both people with MS and occupational therapists suggests that providing energy conservation education by teleconference is acceptable, practical, and worth pursuing in the future.
Telehealth, Program evaluation, Fatigue management
Description de la pratique des ergothérapeutes du Québec en salle d’urgence
Nathalie Veillette, Louise Demers, Élisabeth Dutil
Introduction. Occupational therapists intervene in emergency departments, but the nature and scope of this practice is unknown. Objective. To describe the professional practice of Quebec’s occupational therapists in emergency departments. Methods. Questionnaires covering the general context of practice, nature of interventions, assessment tools, models of practice and the satisfaction of working in emergency departments were sent by mail to the members of l’Ordre des ergothérapeutes du Québec. Results. Occupational therapists have been working in emergency departments in several socio-administrative regions of Quebec and their work experience ranges from 1 to 11 years. They spend over 90% percent of their time with older adults and are members of interdisciplinary teams. They assess diverse areas of functioning and 75% of them use in-house assessment tools. The challenges encountered affect two thirds of the respondants who describe their satistaction level toward the practice as being neutral or unsatisfied. Implications for practice. The respondants have confirmed the emergence of occupational therapy in emergency departments and the need to develop better tools in order to address the problems met in their practice.
Emergency service, Professional practice, Occupational therapy assessments